In 1938, brothers Livio and Pier Giacomo created the Castiglioni Studio, after a few years of collaboration they were joined by a third brother, Achille, in 1944. By 1952 the designs from the studio were helmed by Pier and Achille. As industrial designers, the brothers pushed the limits of design and materials. Receiving a collective achievement of 9 Compasso d’Oro awards. It is believed that over the course of their careers Achille and Pier created over 150 products. Castiglioni Studio had design relationships with Flos, Zanotta, Alessi, and many more. Over the course of their career as design collaborators, the aesthetics of their designs were so in-line with one another, that there was never a clear delineation between the stylistic approaches of either brother.